Beyond Einstein PDF Book by Michio Kaku


Click here to Download Beyond Einstein PDF Book by Michio Kaku English having PDF Size 2.2 MB and No of Pages 459.

A new theory is rocking the foundations of modern physics, rapidly overturning cherished but obsolete notions about our universe and replacing them with new mathematics of breathtaking beauty and elegance. Although there are still some unresolved questions concerning among physicists is palpable; throughout the world, leading physicists are proclaiming that we are witnessing the genesis of a new physics.

Beyond Einstein PDF Book by Michio Kaku

Name of Book Beyond Einstein
Author Michio Kaku
PDF Size 2.2 MB
No of Pages 459
Language  English
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About Book – Beyond Einstein PDF Book

This theory is called superstrings, and a series of astonishing breakthroughs in physics within the last decade have culminated in its development, indicating that perhaps we are finally closing in on the unified field theory: a comprehensive, mathematical framework that would unite all known forces of the universe.

Advocates of superstrings even claim that the theory could be the ultimate theory of the universe. Although physicists are usually cautious in their approach to new ideas, Princeton physicist Edward Witten has claimed that the superstring theory will dominate the world of physics for the next fifty years. Superstring theory is a miracle, through and through, he said recently.

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At one physics conference, he astonished his audience by declaring that we may be witnessing a revolution in physics as great as the birth of the quantum theory. He added, It’s probably going to lead to a new understanding of what space and time really are, the most dramatic [understanding] since general relativity. 

Even Science magazine, always careful not to exaggerate the claims of scientists, compared the birth of the superstring theory to the discovery of the Holy Grail. This revolution, Science magazine claimed, may be no less profound than the transition from real numbers to complex numbers in mathematics.

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Two of the theory’s creators, John Schwarz of the California Institute of Technology and Michael Green of Queen Mary College in London, call it a bit puckishlya Theory of Everything (TOE).3 At the heart of this excitement is the realization that superstrings may provide a comprehensive theory that can explain all known physical phenomena everything from the motion of galaxies.

Down to the dynamics within the nucleus of the atom. The theory even makes startling predictions concerning the origin of the universe, the beginning of time, and the existence of multidimensional universes. To a physicist, it is an intoxicating notion that the vast storehouse of information of our physical universe, painfully accumulated over several thousand years of careful investigation.

Can be summarized in one theory. For example, German physicists have compiled an encyclopedia, the Handbuch der Physik, an exhaustive work that summarized the world’s knowledge of physics. The Handbuch, which physically occupies an entire bookshelf of a library, represented the pinnacle of scientific learning.  Beyond Einstein PDF Book

used as an amplifier to control the flow of electricity. Like a water faucet, where the flow of water is controlled by a simple twist of the wrist, the transistor controls the flow of electricity. Today, transistors control the flow of electricity in our personal computers, our radios, our televisions, and the like.

For their invention of the transistor, three quantum physicists shared the Nobel Prize in 1956: John Bardeen, William Shockley, and Walter Brattain. Quantum mechanics has spawned yet another inventionthe laserwhich is currently altering the way we conduct industry and commerce. Quantum mechanics, first of all, explains why neon and fluorescent lamps work.

In a neon light, an electric current surges through a tube of gas, energizing the atoms of the gas and kicking their electrons upstairs into a higher orbit, or energy level. The electrons in the gas atoms, which are now in an excited state, would like to decay back to their original state of lower energy. When the electrons finally do decay back into a lower orbit, they release energy and emit light. Beyond Einstein PDF Book

In a light bulb, the excited atoms decay randomly. In fact, all the light around us, including sunlight, is random, or incoherent, radiation, a mad jumble of radiation vibrating at different frequencies and different phases. However, physicists such as Charles Townes of the University of California at Berkeley used quantum mechanics to predict that, in certain cases.

The excited atoms could be made to decay at once in precise synchronization. This new type of radiation, called coherent radiation, had never been seen before in nature. In 1927, Werner Heisenberg proposed that it is impossible to know the velocity and the location of an object simultaneously. A wave, after all, is a smeared object.

If we are standing on the beach, how can we calculate precisely the velocity and location of an ocean wave? We can’t. One can never know precisely the position and the velocity of an electron at the same time. This is also a direct consequence of the Schrödinger equation. According to Heisenberg, this uncertainty arises because. Beyond Einstein PDF Book

In the subatomic realm, the very act of observing an object changes its position and velocity. In other words, the process of taking a measurement of an atom’s system disturbs the system so greatly that it alters its state, making the system qualitatively different from its state before the measurement was taken.

For example, an electron is so small that to measure its position in an atom, photons of light must be bounced off of it. However, the light is so powerful that it bumps the electron out of the atom, changing the electron’s position and location. However, one would argue, with a better measuring apparatus, couldn’t the velocity and the position of the electron be measured without altering it?

According to Heisenberg, the answer is no. Quantum mechanics asserts that we can never know simultaneously, no matter how sensitive our measuring devices are, the exact position and velocity of a single electron. We can know one condition or the other, but not both at the same time. This is called Heisenberg’s Uncertainty Principle. Beyond Einstein PDF Book Download

The man who has figured most prominently in the discovery of superstrings is John Sch´warz of the California Institute of Technology. Like some other leading superstring physicists, John Schwarz comes from a family of scientists. His father was an industrial chemist and his mother was a physicist at the University of Vienna.

His mother even secured a job with Madame Curie in Paris, but the great chemist died before she could begin. John’s parents were from Hungary, but, with the massive anti-Jewish sentiment rising under the Nazis in Europe, they fled Europe in 1940 and settled in the United States. John was born in 1941 in North Adams, Massachusetts.

He began his undergraduate work at Harvard as a math major but was graduated as a physics major in 1962. I was beginning to get frustrated with mathematics, he recalls. While it was a lot of fun, I really didn’t see the point in it all. But trying to answer the questions posed by nature, that seemed to me to be more focused, and also more satisfying.  Beyond Einstein PDF Book Download

After Harvard, he went to graduate school at the University of California at Berkeley. That was the hotbed of theoretical physics in those days, he remembers fondly. The S-matrix theory was at its height, and both he and David Gross of Princeton worked under Geoffrey Chew. Among the future luminaries at Berkeley at that time were junior faculty members Steven Weinberg and Sheldon Glashow.

When Weinberg entered the room, says Schwarz, there was a certain aura about him. You knew he was an important person. 2 Leaving Berkeley with his Ph.D. in 1966, Schwarz went to Princeton University, where he worked with two young French physicists from Paris, Andre Neveu and Joel Scherk. Schwarz, with these two Frenchmen, produced a series of seminal superstring papers.

In 1971, Neveu and Schwarz realized that there was a fundamental flaw in the Beta function proposed by Veneziano and Suzuki: Their theory could not describe all the spinning particles found in nature. All objects have spin, or angular momentumeverything from galaxies (which may take millions of years for one rotation) to subatomic particles (which can rotate millions of times in just one second. Beyond Einstein PDF Book Free

Familiar objects such as a spinning top can spin at any rate. A record player, for example, can be adjusted to spin at 331/3 rpm as easily as 78 rpm with the flip of a dial. However, in the quantum world, the spin of an electron does not occur in arbitrary amounts. Just like light, which can occur only in discrete bundles called photons, subatomic particles can spin only with certain amounts of angular momentum.

In fact, quantum mechanics divides all the particles of the world into just two types: bosons and fermions. In the future, scientists will use data from these dead stars to test crucial aspects of general relativity. One physicists who has contributed much to our understanding of the quantum mechanics of black holes is Stephen Hawking.

Who has struggled against enormous physical handicaps to become a giant in the field of relativity. Hawking, who has lost control of his hands, legs, and mouth, does all his calculations in his head. Stephen HawkingQuantum Cosmologist Some people have declared that Stephen Hawking is the successor to Einstein. Beyond Einstein PDF Book Free

He has, in some sense, gone further because he has tried to use quantum mechanics to calculate corrections to the dynamics of black holes. Hawking, by looking at the effects of quantum corrections to the black hole, has predicted phenomena that Einstein never anticipated. He introduced the concept that black holes can evaporate and turn into mini-black holesthat is, some light can, in fact.

Escape the enormous gravitational pull of the black hole because of the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle, which states that there is a finite though small probability that a light beam can travel against the force of gravity and leak past the black hole’s enormous grip. This loss of energy from the black hole eventually creates a miniblack hole, which may be as small as a proton.

Hawking’s interest in science surfaced when he was young. His father, a medical researcher at the National Institute in London, introduced him to biology at an early age. If the ten-dimensional universe did not have the lowest energy, then it would be only a matter of time before it made the quantum leap to a lower-energy state. Beyond Einstein PDF Book Free

We now believe that the original expansion of the universe had its origin in a much greater, much more explosive process: the breakdown of the ten-dimensional fabric of space-time. Like a dam bursting, the ten-dimensional fabric of space-time ruptured violently and rapidly re-formed into two separate universes of lower energy: a four-dimensional universe (our own) and a sixdimensional one.

The violence of this explosion could easily generate enough energy to drive the inflation process forward. The standard Big Bang expansion would emerge only later, as the inflation process slowed down and made the transition to a traditional expanding universe. The four-dimensional universe expanded at the expense of the six-dimensional universe, which collapsed down to the Planck length.

That is perhaps the reason why our universe appears to be four-dimensional the other six dimensions, although they are all around us, are too small to be observed. Although we are still far from being able to verify this picture experimentally, the rapidly developing field of cosmology has given us tantalizing clues about the nature of matter. Beyond Einstein PDF Book Free

Some physicists feel that the answer to many of our questions about the universe may lie in the substance called dark matter, perhaps the most mysterious form of matter in the universe. These puzzles may be resolved with the next generation of experiments and observations. Previous maps of the universe have recorded the precise positions and velocities of tens of thousands of galaxies at a time.

Donald G. York, of the University of Chicago, is heading a group effort of several universities to collect perhaps the largest registry of galaxies, up to one million galaxies, starting in 1995. Advances in automated and digitalized optical instruments are making this previously unimaginable feat possible.

Such a galactic atlas would go a long way toward determining if these anomalies persist. Perhaps the most important set of experiments would involve refinements on the COBE satellite data. One of the limitations of the COBE satellite was that it could analyze temperature variations only down to 7 degrees of arc. Beyond Einstein PDF Book Free

This arc covers an area of sky blocked out by a large grapefruit held out at arm’s length.) Fluctuations over such large regions of space correspond to ten times the size of the largest superclusters of galaxies seen today. This means that the COBE satellite was incapable of detecting tiny temperature variations spread over areas that eventually became the recently observed galactic clusters.

Unfortunately, balloon experiments do not last long enough to make reliable measurements, and ground-based sensors are limited by fluctuations in the atmosphere. Ultimately, future cosmological experiments lie in another COBE-like satellite capable of detecting temperature variations within . 5 degrees of arc.