Click here to Download Psychology A Self-Teaching Guide PDF Book by Frank Joe Bruno English having PDF Size 2.1 MB and No of Pages 289.
Consequently, a trained introspectionist was not supposed to say, “I see a tree.” Instead, he or she was supposed to say, “I see here a patch of green,” and “I see there a bit of brown,” and so forth. These bits and pieces were the psychological “atoms” that made up the complex “molecule” of the tree or other visual object.
Psychology A Self-Teaching Guide PDF Book by Frank Joe Bruno
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Wundt’s studies of vision suggested that there are only three basic kinds of visual sensations. First, there is hue, or color. Second, there is brightness. For example, a light gray card is brighter than a dark gray card. Also, a page of print illuminated with an intense light is brighter than a page illuminated with a light of lower intensity.
Third, there is saturation. This refers to the “richness” or “fullness” of a color. No matter what visual stimulus Wundt’s subjects looked at, there were no other kinds of sensations experienced than the three identified above. Consequently, Wundt concluded that all visual experiences are structured out of these same three types of elemental experiences.
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Similar statements can be made about the other senses such as hearing, taste, and touch. (See chapter 4.) According to Wundt, the primary purpose of psychology is to study the structure of consciousness. By the structure of consciousness, Wundt meant the relationship of a group of sensations, a relationship that produces the complex experiences we think of as our conscious mental life.
This approach to psychology has been called mental chemistry. As earlier indicated, the “atoms” of experience are the sensations. The “molecules” of experience are our complex perceptions. Wundt is considered to be not only the first scientific psychologist, but also the founder of psychology as an academic discipline.
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Many beginning psychology students think this honor belongs to Sigmund Freud. Although Freud is the most famous psychologist who ever lived, he occupies a different place in psychology’s history than does Wundt.) (a) Reporting a sensation alone without being confused by other sensations describes what process? (b) According to Wundt, the primary purpose of psychology is to study.
Introspection; (b) the structure of consciousness. William James (1842–1910), teaching at Harvard in the 1870s, was following Wundt’s research with interest. James had an interest not only in psychology, but also in physiology and eventually in philosophy. James founded a psychological laboratory at Harvard; he also authored The Principles of Psychology. Psychology A Self-Teaching Guide PDF Book
The first psychology textbook published in the United States. The book was published in 1890, and this can also be taken as the date when the school of psychology known as functionalism was born. The principal personality associated with it is James, and he is said to be the dean of American psychologists.
You will recall that near the beginning of this chapter a teacher named Nora was said to have formed the hypothesis that room temperature has an effect on test performance. Let’s say that Nora wants to do an experiment to evaluate this hypothesis. Nora writes the names of sixty students on a set of cards.
The cards are shuffled and then dealt into two groups, Group A and Group B. A coin is flipped. She says in advance that if heads comes up, Group A will be the control group. If tails comes up, Group B will be the control group. Heads comes up, and Group A becomes the control group. By default, Group B is designated the experimental group. Psychology A Self-Teaching Guide PDF Book
It is important to note that the process by which subjects are assigned to groups is a random process, meaning all subjects have an equal chance of being included in either group. The aim of this procedure is to cancel out the effects of individual differences in the subjects that may have an effect on the experiment.
Such variables as age, sex, weight, intelligence, and income level are not, for the moment, under study. A practical way to minimize the effects of such variables is to assign subjects randomly to conditions. The independent variable will be room temperature. Let’s say that most of the time Nora’s students take tests in a room that is 68 degrees Fahrenheit.
The control group will be tested in a room at this temperature. Up until now Nora has been thinking that a “cool” room will have a positive effect on test performance. The time has come to define “cool” more precisely. An operational definition is required, a definition of a variable such as “cool” in terms of its measurement operations. Psychology A Self-Teaching Guide PDF Book
Nora decides that her operational definition of “cool” will be a temperature of 55 degrees Fahrenheit. The word cool is an imprecise, subjective term. On the other hand, 55 degrees Fahrenheit is precise and objective. The experimental group will be tested at this temperature. Let’s say that subjects in both groups are given the same twenty-question multiple-choice test.
Scores range from a low of 5 to a high of 20 correct. The mean (i.e., average) score for subjects in the control group is 11. The mean score for subjects in the experimental group is 14. On the surface, it appears that Nora will make the decision to accept her experimental hypothesis. It appears that a cool room does in fact facilitate test performance.
Before a firm decision can be made to accept or reject a hypothesis, a statistical evaluation of the data must be made. A difference between means is sometimes due to chance. Kurt Koffka (1886–1941), one of the founders of Gestalt psychology, said that the great question of perception is: “Why do things look the way they do?” Psychology A Self-Teaching Guide PDF Book Download
At first the question seems almost silly. We are tempted to answer, “Because things are they way they are.” It would seem that tall things look tall because they are tall. And distant things look distant because they are distant. On the other hand, why does the Moon look larger just above the horizon than it does when it’s overhead?
It hasn’t gotten any bigger, or any closer. And, if a series of disconnected dots are arranged in the pattern of, say, the letter F, it looks like the letter, not a bunch of disconnected dots—which, it could be argued, it actually is. You learned in the last chapter that visual images on your retina are upsidedown. Nonetheless, you perceive them as right side up.
At the level of sensation, it’s an inverted world. At the level of perception, the world doesn’t look inverted at all. Koffka’s question does not have to be limited to the sense of vision. The same question could be adapted to the other senses. The principles set forth in this chapter, largely in connection with vision, can be readily applied to perception in general. Sensation, as indicated in chapter 4. Psychology A Self-Teaching Guide PDF Book Download
Is the raw data of experience. Perception, on the other hand, is the organization and the meaning we give to primitive information. It can be said with some degree of confidence that we use sensory information to create a psychological world. Returning to Koffka, he said that there is a distinction between the geographical world and the psychological world.
The geographical world is the actual world “out there,” the world as defined and described by physics. The psychological world is the world “in here,” the world as experienced by the subject. Although common sense usually says it’s the so-called “real world” or physical world that determines our behavior, it can be argued that common sense isn’t sufficiently analytical.
Reflection suggests that we behave in terms of what we perceive to be true, not necessarily in terms of what is actually true. If ice is thin in the physical world, and it is solid in your psychological world, you are likely to skate on it. And, of course, you may make a serious mistake as a result. Psychology A Self-Teaching Guide PDF Book Download
Social learning theory, associated with Bandura’s research, states that much of our behavior in reference to other people is acquired through observational learning. Let’s say that Carol is a fifteen-year-old high school student. She is on the fringe of a group of adolescent females who admire a charismatic eighteenyear-old named Dominique.
Dominique smokes, uses obscenities, and brags about her sexual exploits. Carol observes Dominique and obtains a lot of vicarious reinforcement from Dominique’s behavior. If Carol begins to imitate Dominique’s behavior, then social learning has taken place. Both prosocial behavior and antisocial behavior can be acquired through observational learning.
Prosocial behavior is behavior that contributes to the long-run goals of a traditional reference group such as the family or the population of the nation (see chapter 16). If an individual admires one or both parents, then the parents may be taken as role models. Many adolescents and young adults acquire attitudes and personal habits that resemble those of their parents. Psychology A Self-Teaching Guide PDF Book Free
If one is patriotic and ready to defend one’s nation during time of war, it is quite likely that the individual is taking important historical figures such as presidents and generals as role models. Antisocial behavior is behavior that has an adverse impact on the long-run goals of a traditional reference group. From the point of view of Carol’s parents.
If Carol begins to act like Dominique, then Carol’s behavior is antisocial. An approach-avoidance conflict exists when an individual perceives the same goal in both positive and negative terms. Glen is in love with Margaret and is thinking about marrying her. He sees her as beautiful, warm, and sexually desirable. On the other hand, Glen’s parents are opposed to Margaret.
They point out to him that she has a different religious affiliation than that of Glen and his parents. Margaret takes her religion seriously. So do Glen and his parents. The two religions are based on different assumptions. Glen’s parents tell him that they don’t see how he can ever have a happy marriage with Margaret. If Glen and Margaret have children, Margaret will want to raise them in her religious tradition. Psychology A Self-Teaching Guide PDF Book Free
Glen will want to raise them in his. When Glen is away from Margaret, he thinks about her constantly. He misses her, and often decides that he’ll propose marriage no matter what the consequences. When he’s actually with her, the words associated with the marriage proposal won’t leave his mouth. He gets cold feet at the last minute.
One of the characteristics of approach-avoidance conflicts is that the approach tendency tends to gain strength when the positive aspect of the goal seems momentarily out of reach. Conversely, the avoidance tendency tends to gain strength when in the presence of the goal; under these conditions the negative factors tend to loom large.
An individual caught in an approach-avoidance conflict often experiences a sustained period of emotional conflict before a final decision is made. A reliable test is one that gives stable, repeatable results. Let’s say that you use a certain thermometer to take the temperature of family members when an illness is suspected. Psychology A Self-Teaching Guide PDF Book Free
In most cases, the thermometer will be reliable. You can depend on it. An intelligence test has to be carefully assessed for reliability. This is also accomplished with the use of the correlation coefficient. Let’s say that a 100- question test is split into two versions, Form A and Form B. The original 100 questions are randomly assigned to two forms.
Form A has 50 questions. Form B has 50 questions. The two tests are administered, for example, one week apart to the same group of children. If Sheila obtains an IQ score of 119 on Form A, she should obtain a score close to 119 on Form B. However, if she obtains 119 on Form A and 87 on Form B, the reliability of the test is in question.
A familiar proverb states, “As the twig is bent, so grows the tree.” Meant to apply as a metaphor to the raising of children, this saying contains within it an entire justification for the study of developmental psychology. Every adult was once a child, and the adult was shaped and formed by experiences during childhood. Psychology A Self-Teaching Guide PDF Book Free
Psychologists as far apart in many of their assumptions and conclusions as Sigmund Freud and John Watson subscribed to the general view that in order to understand adult behavior it is necessary to study child behavior. The contemporary approach to developmental psychology expands the concept of development well past childhood and adolescence.
There are also developmental stages associated with adulthood. This will be evident when Erik Erikson’s theory of development is presented later in this chapter. Developmental psychology is the study of the growth and maturation of the individual over an extended span of time. Child psychology is a subset of developmental psychology.
It concerns itself primarily with the study of the individual from birth to the beginning of adolescence (usually around the age of twelve or thirteen). Adolescent psychology is also a subset of developmental psychology. It concerns itself primarily with the study of the individual from the beginning of adolescence to its end (usually around the age of eighteen). Sometimes child psychology refers loosely to both child and adolescent psychology Psychology A Self-Teaching Guide PDF Book Free