The Circadian Code PDF Book by Satchin Panda



Click here to Download The Circadian Code PDF Book by Satchin Panda English having PDF Size 7 MB and No of Pages 215.
In 2001, I was invited to do my postdoctoral research at the newly founded Genomics Institute of the Novartis Research Foundation (GNF), where I would be working on animal clocks. This premier institute squarely focused on using the newly described human and mouse genome to understand biology.

The Circadian Code PDF Book by Satchin Panda

Name of Book The Circadian Code
Author Satchin Panda
PDF Size 7 MB
No of Pages 215
Language  English
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About Book – The Circadian Code PDF Book

I was there to solve mysteries in circadian biology. My first breakthrough came in the first year. I was able to explain how our circadian rhythms adjust to different seasons or different types of light. My team discovered an elusive blue light sensor in the eye’s retina that sends light signals to the brain clock to tell it when it is morning and when it is night.

Having a handle on the light sensor helped us figure out how much light—of which color, for how long, and at what time of the day—we need to advance or delay our clock. That was a huge discovery because for almost 100 years, scientists had known that there was a light sensor in the eye, but they didn’t have any idea where it was or what it did.

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This discovery was cited among the top ten breakthroughs of 2002 by the prestigious Science magazine, and it is the reason why your smartphone or tablet lets you change its background color from bright white to a dimmer orange a few hours before your scheduled sleep time.

It took us almost 8 years to determine how this light sensor worked, how it transfers information from the eye to the brain, and which brain regions receive that information in order to regulate sleep, depression, circadian rhythm, and pain. Even today, I am still trying to figure out the full extent to which light affects circadian rhythm and how modern lighting affects this process.

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Yet it’s been very gratifying to see how our discovery went from simple observation to adoption, enabling more than a billion people to be aware of the impact of light on their health in just 15 years. A second point of inquiry was to determine how our internal clocks transmit their timing information and how our organs read time and do different tasks at specific times.

We started using very modern genomic technology to monitor which genes turn on and off at different times in different organs. This research began in 2002, and since then we have had another big breakthrough: the discovery that hundreds to thousands of genes in both the brain and liver turn on and off at specific times.

We are still extending these experiments to different organs, tissues, brain centers, and glands. We are finding that almost every organ has its own clock, and in each organ genes turn on or off, affecting protein production levels at predictable times of the day. To understand how this light sensor works, in our experiment we used mice that either lacked the melanopsin gene or the melanopsin cells. The Circadian Code PDF Book

Even though their eyes were otherwise perfectly normal—they could see fine and find their way around. When the gene is bred out of the mice, the cells stay alive, but when the cells are removed, the genetic expression is ended as well. When the melanopsin gene is removed, light information can still trickle into the mouse’s brain through melanopsin cells.

But when the cells are gone, all connection between the eye and the brain’s circadian clock system is gone. Normal mice usually wake up in the evening (they are nocturnal) and sleep during the day. But mice that don’t have melanopsin cells cannot sense the light and darkness. Yet when these mice were put under constant darkness, they maintained a normal circadian clock.

They went to sleep and woke up just like a normal mouse does, the cycle repeating every 23 hours 45 minutes. However, the melanopsin-free mice had greater difficulty adjusting to the small time change that occurs during any given week. While normal mice could readjust their sleep and wakeup time to the light-dark cycle within a week. The Circadian Code PDF Book

The mice that didn’t have the melanopsin gene took an entire month or longer to adjust. What’s more, normal mice—like deer—freeze when they see bright light at night. But the mice that didn’t have melanopsin didn’t freeze under bright light at night: They continued running around. Finally, light at night did not affect the melatonin-production system in the mice that lacked both melanopsin genes and cells.

Since mice and humans share most of the same genes, including melanopsin, experiments with mice have immediate implications for human circadian rhythm. They suggest that melanopsin can impact the human circadian clock, our sleep cycles, and melatonin production. Our next question was targeted to better understand what type of light can be most

Or least effective for activating melanopsin so that we can have the right type of light at the right time to optimize our clock. Visible light includes all the colors of the rainbow. Each color has a different wavelength. Red has the longest wavelength, and violet has the shortest. When all the waves are seen together, they make white light, or sunlight. The Circadian Code PDF Book

Different colors within that white light activate three different types of opsin proteins (red, green, and blue), which in turn identify these colors individually and collectively (as white light). The melanopsin protein is most sensitive to blue light waves and is less sensitive to red light. When melanopsin is activated by registering blue light.

It sends a signal to the brain that any light is present, and the brain responds by thinking it is daytime, regardless of what time it really is. If you’re walking in the grocery store at night, your melanopsin is registering the overhead light and your brain thinks that it’s daytime and you should be awake. Imagine that you have two light bulbs with identical brightness—one is a blue light and the other one is an orange light.

In the middle of the night as you turn on the orange light, the light fires up opsins in the green cones (green cone opsin can sense some orange light as orange is close to green in the rainbow) and your brain recognizes what is in the room. If you turn on the blue light, your blue cones will fire up and you can see the same objects in the room. The Circadian Code PDF Book

However, melanopsin cells barely fire up under orange light and will tell the brain it is night, while the blue light will register as daylight. So, if you spend an hour under orange light, your circadian clock may not be disturbed much, but spending an hour under blue light will make your clock reset as if it is morning.

As seasons change and day length changes, our circadian rhythms adjust to the change in sunrise and sunset times. For a long time, we did not have a clear idea of how these circadian rhythms reset to new timing of sunrise or sunset, or how circadian rhythms are influenced by light.

But our research showed that these same blue light sensors reset the brain clock when day length changes with each season or when we travel over different time zones. They also directly or indirectly connect to brain regions that control depression, alertness, sleep, production of the sleep hormone melatonin, and even to the brain center that regulates migraine pain or headache. The Circadian Code PDF Book Download

Melanopsin has another peculiar property: It takes a lot of light to activate it. For example, if you open your eyes for a few seconds in a dimly lit room, your rod and cone cells can take in an image of the room, but your melanopsin cells will react as if it was too dark to see. These discoveries helped us begin to understand how light affects health.

Our modern lifestyle, in which we spend most of our time indoors looking at bright screens and turn on bright lights at night, activates melanopsin at the wrong times of day and night, which then disrupts our circadian rhythms and reduces the production. There seems to be some Internet myth that ancestral people slept for a few hours.

Woke up in the middle of the night; did some activity, like sex or eating; and then went back to sleep. However, the research doesn’t support this. As recently as 2016, scientists conducted studies on indigenous groups, including the Hadza of Tanzania and the Toba of Argentina, who don’t have access to electrical lighting.4,5 They sleep in their huts, or sometimes even in open fields. The Circadian Code PDF Book Download

When scientists put sleep trackers on these people for many days at a time, they didn’t find any sign of two-phase sleep. These people slept for the typical 7, 8, or 9 hours. They would go to bed around 9:00 or 10:00 p.m. and wake up at the crack of dawn. Two-phase sleep is actually a more common pattern in our modern lifestyle.

Lots of people wake up after 3 to 4 hours (that window when sleep debt is paid off) and find it very hard to fall back to sleep. Frustrated, they might start working on the computer, start reading a book, or go to the kitchen to get a bowl of cereal. This type of sleep works in opposition to your circadian code and is one of the habits this book will help break.

The second simple thing you can do is use a sleeping aid that keeps your nose open. There are two main types: ones that pull the skin on your nose open, like a Breathe Right nasal strip, and ones that are inserted inside your nose to open the airway. Not only do these keep the nose open throughout the night, they also allow you to breathe in more oxygen, which will improve the quality of your sleep quite a lot. The Circadian Code PDF Book Download

Some days, if I’m tired at the end of a long day of work, I actually put one of those Breathe Right strips on my nose when I’m driving back from work because I know that one aspect of feeling tired is my brain didn’t get enough oxygen during the daytime (because I’m chronically stuffy). In that 30-minute commute, I get enough oxygen so by the time I hit home, I’m really full of energy again.

If snoring continues even after these over-the-counter fixes, see an ear, nose, and throat specialist (ENT) or a pulmonary medicine sleep specialist. Sleep Apnea Is Serious Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is one of the major causes of sleep deprivation. It occurs when you have a blockage or obstruction in the nasal cavity or throat.

Have a floppy tongue that obstructs your airways either partially or completely during the night. The obstructions deprive the brain and the body of oxygen and cause an automatic response that wakes you up just enough so that you breathe again, although you may not wake to the point of consciousness. These upsets can occur all night long, yet people with sleep apnea very often have no clue. The Circadian Code PDF Book Free

Instead, they’ll wake up in the morning without feeling refreshed. Other subtle clues include waking up with a dry mouth or having to repeatedly use the bathroom in the middle of the night. Some people with sleep apnea snore, but not all of them. And not all snoring is considered to be sleep apnea.

Your partner might be a better detective than you in determining if you are suffering from sleep apnea: If you have been told that you hold your breath during the night, you may be affected. Sleep apnea affects not only the quality and quantity of your sleep but also your brain health. Cognitive problems, such as deficits in memory, attention, and visual abilities, frequently accompany OSA.

It is also a major risk factor for heart disease and stroke since as many as two-thirds of people with underlying sleep apnea have high blood pressure.17 A sleep study can help you determine if you are suffering from sleep apnea. The standard treatment for sleep apnea is a device referred to as a CPAP (continuous positive airway pressure) that is prescribed by a doctor. The Circadian Code PDF Book Free

Trained medical staff guides you on how to use the machine. It is a mask that you wear over your nose and mouth that is hooked up to a machine to make sure that you have a constant supply of air. There are other devices and apps that can monitor your oxygen intake as well. Sleep Medications While effective, sleep medications have never been tested for continuous use for more than 6 months.

We don’t know what the long-term benefits or adverse side effects are of most of these medications. Please keep that in mind if you have been tempted to ask your doctor for a prescription. Sleep medications fall into two different categories. The first are the ones that improve your ability to fall asleep, like Ambien (zolpidem), Lunesta (eszopiclone), and Restoril (temazepam).

If you fall into the camp who needs this type of drug, consider trying melatonin supplements first, as they reduce the time between going to bed and falling asleep.18 The second type of medication is for people who cannot stay asleep, or who wake up too many times throughout the night. These sleep medications, like Silenor (doxepin).The Circadian Code PDF Book Free

Help people with fragmented sleep get uninterrupted sleep, but some are so strong that in the morning people still experience sleepiness and brain fog. These medications help you fall asleep, but they don’t help you wake up.