Click here to Download The Future of Humanity PDF Book by Michio Kaku English having PDF Size 14 MB and No of Pages 336.
But the economic situation has begun to change. The price of space travel, once so high it could cripple a nation’s budget, has been dropping steadily, in large part because of the inux of energy, money, and enthusiasm from a rising cohort of entrepreneurs. Impatient with NASA’s sometimes glacial pace, billionaires like Elon Musk.
The Future of Humanity PDF Book by Michio Kaku
|Name of Book||The Future of Humanity|
|PDF Size||14 MB|
|No of Pages||336|
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Richard Branson, and Jeff Bezos have been opening up their checkbooks to build new rockets. Not only do they want to turn a prot, they also want to fulll their childhood dreams of going to the stars. Now there is a rejuvenated national will. The question is no longer whether the U.S. will send astronauts to the Red Planet, but when.
Former president Barack Obama stated that astronauts would walk on the surface of Mars sometime after 2030, and President Donald Trump has asked NASA to accelerate that timetable. A eet of rockets and space modules capable of an interplanetary journey—like NASA’s Space Launch System (SLS) booster rocket with the Orion capsule.
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And Elon Musk’s Falcon Heavy booster rocket with the Dragon capsule—are in the early testing phase. They will do the heavy living, taking our astronauts to the moon, asteroids, Mars, and even beyond. In fact, so much publicity and enthusiasm have been generated by this mission that there is rivalry building up around it.
Perhaps there will be a traffic jam over Mars as different groups compete to plant the rst ag on Martian soil. Some have written that we are entering a new golden age of space travel, when exploring the universe will once again become an exciting part of the national agenda aer decades of neglect.
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In this book, I will describe the technologies that will take us even farther as we explore the planets and the stars. In part 1, we will discuss the effort to create a permanent moon base and to colonize and terraform Mars. To do this, we will have to exploit the fourth wave of science, which consists of articial intelligence, nanotechnology, and biotechnology.
The goal of terraforming Mars exceeds our capability today, but the technologies of the twenty-second century will allow us to turn this bleak, frozen desert into a habitable world. We will consider the use of self-replicating robots, superstrong, lightweight nanomaterials, and bioengineered crops to drastically cut costs and make Mars into a veritable paradise.
Eventually, we will progress beyond Mars and develop settlements on the asteroids and the moons of the gas giants, Jupiter and Saturn. In part 2, we will look ahead to a time when we will be able to move beyond the solar system and explore the nearby stars. Again, this mission surpasses our current technology. The Future of Humanity PDF Book
But the wave technologies will make it possible: nanoships, laser sails, ramjet fusion machines, antimatter engines. Already, NASA has funded studies on the physics necessary to make interstellar travel a reality. In part 3, we analyze what it would require to modify our bodies to enable us to nd a new home among the stars.
An interstellar journey may take decades or even centuries, so we may have to genetically engineer ourselves to survive for prolonged periods in deep space, perhaps by extending the human life span. Although a fountain of youth is not possible today, scientists are exploring promising avenues that may allow us to slow and perhaps stop the aging process.
Our descendants may enjoy some form of immortality. Furthermore, we may have to genetically engineer our bodies to ourish on distant planets with different gravity, atmospheric composition, and ecology. Today, it is not the private fortunes of the members of the Baltimore Gun Club fueling this new space race but the checkbooks of moguls like Jeff Bezos. The Future of Humanity PDF Book
Instead of waiting for NASA to give him permission to build rockets and a launchpad with taxpayer dollars, he founded his own company, Blue Origin, and is building them himself, with his own pocket money. Already, the project has gone beyond the planning stage. Blue Origin has produced its own rocket system.
Called New Shepard (named aer Alan Shepard, the rst American to go into space via a suborbital rocket). In fact, the New Shepard rocket was the rst suborbital rocket in the world to successfully land back on its original launchpad, just beating out Elon Musk’s Falcon rocket (which was the rst reusable rocket to actually send a payload into Earth orbit).
Bezos’s New Shepard rocket is only suborbital, meaning that it cannot reach a speed of eighteen thousand miles per hour and go into near-Earth orbit. It won’t take us to the moon, but it may be the rst American rocket to routinely offer tourists a view of space. Blue Origin recently released a video of a hypothetical journey on the New Shepard, and it looked like you were riding rst class on a luxury ship. The Future of Humanity PDF Book
When you enter the space capsule, you are immediately impressed with how roomy it is. Far from the cramped quarters often seen in science ction movies, there is ample room for you and ve other tourists to be strapped into your lush reclining seats, where you immediately sink into black leather. You can look out of huge windows that are approximately 2.4 feet wide and 3.5 feet tall.
“Every seat is a window seat, the largest windows ever in space,” Bezos claims. Space travel has never been so gorgeous. More interesting than Jupiter and Saturn in terms of the potential to support life are their moons, of which there are at least sixty-nine and sixtytwo, respectively. Astronomers had assumed that the moons of Jupiter would all be the same: frozen and desolate like our moon.
They were completely surprised, then, when they found that each moon had its own distinct characteristics. This information brought about a paradigm ship in how scientists viewed life in the universe. Perhaps the most intriguing of all is Europa, one of the original moons discovered by Galileo. Europa, like some of the other moons of the gas giants, is covered with a thick layer of ice. The Future of Humanity PDF Book
One theory is that water vapor from the early volcanoes on Europa condensed into ancient oceans, which froze as the moon cooled. This may explain the curious fact that Europa is one of the smoothest moons in the solar system. Although it was heavily hit by asteroids, its oceans probably froze after most of the bombardment took place, thereby covering over the scars.
From outer space, Europa appears to resemble a ping-pong ball, with almost no surface features—no volcanoes, mountain ranges, or meteor impact craters. The only visible feature is a network of cracks. Astronomers were thrilled when they discovered that underneath the ice on Europa could be an ocean of liquid water.
It is estimated to be two or three times the volume of Earth’s oceans—our oceans only lie on the surface, while the oceans of Europa make up most of the interior. While journalists often say, “Follow the money,” astronomers say, “Follow the water,” because water is fundamental to the formation of life as we know it. The Future of Humanity PDF Book
They were shocked to think that liquid water could exist in the realm of the gas giants. Its presence on Europa introduced a mystery: Where did the heat come from to melt the ice? The situation seemed to defy conventional wisdom. We had long assumed that the sun was the only source of heat in the solar system and that a planet would have to be within the Goldilocks zone to be habitable.
But Jupiter was far outside this band. We had neglected to contemplate, however, another potential source of energy: tidal forces. e gravity of Jupiter is so great that it can pull and squeeze Europa. As it orbits around the planet, it tumbles and rotates around its axis, so that its tidal bulge is constantly moving.
This squeezing and pulling can cause intense friction in the core of the moon as rock is compressed against rock, and the heat generated by this friction is sufficient to melt much of the ice cover. With the discovery of liquid water on Europa astronomers realized that there is a source of energy that can make life possible even in the darkest regions of space. The Future of Humanity PDF Book Download
As a result, all the astronomy textbooks had to be rewritten. Today, we know that comets come mainly from two places. The rst is the Kuiper Belt, a region outside Neptune that orbits in the same plane as the planets. The comets in the Kuiper Belt, which include Halley’s comet, travel in ellipses around the sun.
They are sometimes called short-period comets, because their orbital periods, or the time it takes for them to complete one cycle around the sun, are measured in decades to centuries. Since their periods are known or can be computed, they are predictable and hence we know they are not particularly dangerous. Much farther out, there is the Oort Cloud, a sphere of comets surrounding our entire solar system.
Many of them are so far from the sun —up to a few light-years away—that they are largely stationary. Once in a while, these comets are hurled into the inner solar system by a passing star or random collision. They are called long-period comets, since their orbital periods might be measured in tens, even hundreds of thousands of years, if they return at all. The Future of Humanity PDF Book Download
They are almost impossible to forecast and therefore potentially more hazardous to the Earth than short-period comets. New discoveries are being made every year about the Kuiper Belt and the Oort Cloud. In 2016, it was announced that a ninth planet, about the size of Neptune, might exist deep in the Kuiper Belt.
This object was identied not by direct observation through a telescope but by using computers to solve Newton’s equations. Although its presence is not yet conrmed, many astronomers believe that the data is very convincing, and this situation has its precedents. In the nineteenth century, it was pointed out that the planet Uranus deviated slightly from predictions derived from Newton’s laws.
Either Newton was wrong or there was a remote body tugging on Uranus. Scientists calculated the position of this hypothetical planet and found it after just a few hours of observation in 1846. They called it Neptune. (In another case, astronomers noticed that Mercury, too, strayed from its anticipated path. They conjectured that a planet, which they dubbed Vulcan, existed within the orbit of Mercury. The Future of Humanity PDF Book Download
But after repeated efforts, no planet Vulcan was found. Albert Einstein, recognizing that Newton’s laws could be awed, showed that Mercury’s orbit could be explained by an entirely new effect, the warping of space-time according to his theory of relativity. Assume that an Earth-like twin has been discovered in space that has an oxygen/nitrogen atmosphere, liquid water.
A rocky core, and is a size that closely matches that of the Earth. It sounds like an ideal candidate for habitation. But then you realize that this twin is one hundred light-years from Earth. This means that a starship, using perhaps fusion or antimatter propulsion, would require two hundred years to reach it.
If one generation corresponds to roughly twenty years, this means that ten generations of humans will be born on the starship, which will be the only home they know. Although this may seem daunting, realize that during the Middle Ages, master architects would design grand cathedrals knowing that they would not live long enough to see the completion of their masterpieces. The Future of Humanity PDF Book Free
They knew that perhaps their grandchildren would be the ones to celebrate the opening of the cathedral. Also, realize that during the Great Diaspora, when humans began to leave Africa roughly seventy-ve thousand years ago in search of a new home, they realized that perhaps it would take many generations for them to complete their journey.
So the concept of a multigeneration voyage is not a new one. But there are problems that have to be faced if you are traveling on a starship. First, the population has to be chosen very carefully, with at least two hundred people per ship, in order to have a sustainable breeding population. The number of people has to be monitored so that the population remains relatively constant and they do not exhaust supplies.
Even the slightest deviation in population, extended over ten generations, could lead to a disastrous overpopulation or underpopulation, which would threaten the entire mission. For humans this high concentration of glucose in our bodies would be toxic and would kill us. So scientists have experimented with other kinds of chemical antifreezes in a process they call vitrication. The Future of Humanity PDF Book Free
Which involves using a combination of chemicals to lower the freezing point so that ice crystals do not form. Although it sounds intriguing, the results have been disappointing so far. Vitrication often has adverse side effects. The chemicals used in the labs are often poisonous and can be lethal. To date, no one has ever been frozen solid, then thawed out, and lived to tell about it.
So we are a long way from effectively achieving suspended animation. (This hasn’t stopped entrepreneurs from prematurely advertising this as a way to cheat death.