The Metaverse PDF Book by Matthew Ball


Click here to Download The Metaverse PDF Book by Matthew Ball Language English having PDF Size 1.9 MB and No of Pages 370.

As with Vannevar Bush, Stephenson’s influence on modern technology only grows with time, even if he is mostly unknown to the public. Conversations with Stephenson helped inspire Jeff Bezos to found the private aerospace manufacturer and suborbital spaceflight company Blue Origin in 2000, with the author working there part-time until 2006.

The Metaverse PDF Book by Matthew Ball

Name of Book The Metaverse
PDF Size 1.9 MB
No of Pages 370
Language English
Buy Book From Amazon

About Book – The Metaverse PDF Book

When he became a senior advisor to the company (a position he still holds). As of 2021, Blue Origin is considered the second most valuable company of its kind, ranked only behind Elon Musk’s SpaceX. Two of the three founders of Keyhole, now known as Google Earth, have said their visions were informed by a similar product described in Snow Crash, and that they once tried to recruit Stephenson to the company.

From 2014 to 2020, Stephenson was also “Chief Futurist” at Magic Leap, a mixed reality company that was also inspired by his work. The company later raised over half a billion dollars from corporations including Google, Alibaba, and AT&T, attaining a peak valuation of $6.7 billion, before struggles to realize its vaulting ambitions resulted in a recapitalization and the departure of its founder.

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Stephenson’s novels have been cited as the inspiration for various cryptocurrency projects and noncryptographic efforts to build decentralized computer networks, as well as the production of CGI-based movies which are watched at home but generated live through the motion-captured performance of actors that might be tens of thousands of miles away.

Despite his far-reaching impact, Stephenson has consistently warned against a literal interpretation of his works—especially Snow Crash. In 2011, the novelist told the New York Times that “I can talk all day long about how wrong I got it”2 and, when asked about his influence on Silicon Valley by Vanity Fair in 2017.

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He reminded the publication to keep “in mind that [Snow Crash was written] preInternet as we know it, pre-Worldwide Web, just me making shit up. The growing popularity of MUDs inspired the creation of MultiUser Shared Hallucinations (or MUSHs) or Multi-User Experiences (MUXs).

Unlike MUDs, which asked players to carry out specific roles in the context of a specific and usually fantastical narrative, MUSHs and MUXs enabled participants to collaboratively define the world and its objective. Players might choose to set their MUSH in a courtroom, while taking on roles such as defendant, attorney, plaintiff, judge, and members of the jury.

One participant might later decide to transform the relatively mundane proceedings into a hostage situation—which would then be diffused by a poem that was mad-libbed by the other players. The next great leap came in 1986 with the release of the Commodore 64 online game Habitat, which was published by Lucasfilm, the production company founded by Star Wars creator George Lucas. The Metaverse PDF Book

Habitat was described as “a multi-participant online virtual environment” and, in a reference to Gibson’s novel Neuromancer, “a cyberspace.” Unlike MUDs and MUSHs, the world of Habitat was graphical, thereby allowing users to actually see virtual environments and characters, though only via pixeled 2D. It also afforded players far greater control over the in-game environment.

“Citizens” of Habitat were in charge of the laws and expectations of their virtual world, and had to barter with each other for necessary resources and avoid being robbed or killed for their wares. This challenge led to periods of chaos, after which new rules, regulations, and authorities were established by the player community to maintain order.

But even if a consumer could afford such a hard drive and have enough space to house it, MSFS is a live service. It updates to reflect real-world weather (including accurate wind speed and direction, temperature, humidity, rain, and light), air traffic, and other geographic changes. This allows a player to fly into real-world hurricanes. The Metaverse PDF Book

Or to trail real-life commercial airliners on their exact flight path while they’re in the air in the real world. This means that users cannot “prebuy” or “pre-download” all of MSFS—much of it doesn’t yet exist! Microsoft Flight Simulator works by storing a relatively small portion of the “game” on a consumer’s device—roughly 150 GB.

This portion is enough to run the game—it contains all of the game’s code, visual information for numerous planes, and a number of maps. As a result, MSFS can be used offline. However, offline users see mostly procedurally generated environments and objects, with landmarks such as Manhattan broadly familiar but populated with generic.

Mostly duplicated buildings that bear only an occasional and sometimes accidental resemblance to their real-world counterparts. Some preprogrammed flight paths exist, but they cannot mimic actual live routes, nor can one player see another player’s plane. It’s when players go online that MSFS becomes such a wonder, with Microsoft’s servers streaming new maps. The Metaverse PDF Book

Textures, weather data, flight paths, and whatever other information a user might need. In a sense, players experience the MSFS world exactly as a real-world pilot might. When they fly over or around a mountain, new information streams into their retinas via light particles, revealing and then clarifying what’s there for the first time.

Before then, a pilot knows only that, logically, something must be there. Many gamers assume this is what happens in all online multiplayer video games. But the truth is that most online games try to send as much information as possible to the user in advance, and as little as possible when they’re playing. This explains why playing a game, even a relatively small one such as Super Mario Bros.

Requires purchasing digital discs that contain multi-gigabyte game files, or spending hours downloading these files—and then spending even more time installing them. And then from time to time, we might be told to download and install a multi-gigabyte update before we can play again. The Metaverse PDF Book

These files are so large because they contain nearly the entire game—namely its code, game logic, and all the assets and textures required for the in-game environment (every type of tree, every avatar, every boss battle, every weapon, and so on). For the typical online game, what actually comes from online multiplayer servers?

Not much. Fortnite’s PC and console game files are roughly 30 GB in size, but online play involves only 20–50 MB (or 0.02–0.05 GB) in downloaded data per hour. This information tells the player’s device what to do with the data they already have. For example, if you’re playing an online game of Mario Kart.

Nintendo’s servers will tell your Nintendo Switch which avatars your opponents are using and should therefore be loaded. During the match, your continuous connection to this server enables it to send a constant stream of data on exactly where these opponents are (“positional data”), what they’re doing (sending a red shell at you. The Metaverse PDF Book Download

Communications (e.g., your teammate’s audio), and various other information, such as how many players are still in the match. The challenge with real-time rendered virtual worlds is that users aren’t sending a single car from one destination to another. Instead, they’re sending a never-ending fleet of cars tethered together (remember, we need a “continuous connection”) both to and from that destination.

It’s not possible to send these cars in advance because their contents are decided only milliseconds before they hit the road. What’s more, we need these cars to move at their fastest possible speed and without ever being diverted to another route (which would sever the continuous connection and lengthen the transit time even if the top speed was maintained.

A global road system that meets and sustains these specifications is a substantial challenge. In Part I, I explained that few online services today need ultra-low latency. It doesn’t matter if it takes 100 milliseconds or 200 milliseconds or even two-second delays between sending a WhatsApp message and receiving a read receipt. The Metaverse PDF Book Download

It also doesn’t matter if it takes 20 ms or 150 ms or 300 ms after a user clicks YouTube’s pause button until the video stops—and most users probably don’t register the difference between 20 ms and 50 ms. When you’re watching Netflix, it’s more important that the video plays reliably rather than immediately.

And while latency in a Zoom video call is annoying, it’s easy for participants to manage; they just learn to wait a bit after the speaker stops speaking. Even a second (1,000 ms) is workable. This usually leads to visions of superpowerful, yet lightweight, augmented reality and immersive virtual reality headsets.

These devices are not required for the Metaverse, but are often assumed to be the best or most natural way to experience its many virtual worlds. Big-tech executives seem to agree, even though supposed consumer demand for these devices has yet to translate into sales. Microsoft began developing its HoloLens AR headset and platform in 2010, releasing the first device in 2016 and the second in 2019. The Metaverse PDF Book Download

After five years on the market, fewer than half a million units have shipped. Still, investment in the division continues and Microsoft CEO Satya Nadella still highlights the device to investors and customers, particularly in the context of the company’s Metaverse ambitions. Although Google Glass, Google’s AR device.

Quickly earned a reputation as one of the most overhyped and failed products in consumer electronics history after it launched in 2013, Google continues to support it. In 2017, the company released an updated model, named the Google Glass Enterprise Edition, with a follow-up coming later in 2019.

Since June 2020, Google has spent $1 billion– $2 billion acquiring AR glasses start-ups such as North and Raxium. Though Google’s efforts in VR received less press attention than Google Glass, they’ve been more significant and arguably more disappointing. Google’s first foray came in 2014 and was named Google Cardboard and had the stated goal of inspiring interest in immersive virtual reality. The Metaverse PDF Book Download

For developers, Google produced a Cardboard software development kit, which helped developers create VR-specific apps built in Java, Unity, or Apple’s Metal. For users, Google created a $15 foldout cardboard “Viewer,” into which users could place their iPhones or Android devices in order to experience VR without needing to buy a new device.

A year after Cardboard was announced, Google unveiled Jump, a platform and ecosystem for VR filmmaking, and Expeditions, a program focused on providing VR-based field trips for educators. The top-level numbers achieved by Cardboard were impressive: over 15 million viewers were sold by Google in five years, while nearly 200 million Cardboard-enabled apps were downloaded.

And over a million students took at least one Expeditions tour within the first year of release. However, these figures reflected evidence of consumer intrigue more than inspiration. In November 2019, Google shut down the Cardboard project and open sourced its SDK. (Expeditions was discontinued in June 2021.) In 2016, Google launched its second VR platform. The Metaverse PDF Book Free

Daydream, which was intended to improve upon Cardboard’s foundation. The improvements started with the quality of the Daydream viewer. The $80–$100 headset was made from foam and covered in soft fabric (available in four colors) and unlike the Cardboard viewer, could be strapped to a user’s head, rather than requiring to user to hold it up in front of them when in use.

The Daydream viewer also came with a dedicated handheld remote control, and had an NFC (near-field communication) chip that could automatically recognize properties of the phone that was being used and put it into VR mode, instead of requiring users to do so themselves. While Daydream received positive reviews from the press and led companies including HBO and Hulu to produce VR-specific apps.

Consumers showed little interest in the platform. Google cancelled the project at the same time as Cardboard was terminated. Roblox is full of happy users and talented creators. However, few of these creators are making money. Although Roblox Corporation had nearly $2 billion in revenues in 2021, only 81 developers (i.e., companies) netted over $1 million that year, and only seven crossed $10 million. The Metaverse PDF Book Free

This is bad for everyone, really, given that more developer revenue would mean more developer investment and better products for users, which in turn drives more user spending. Unfortunately, it’s difficult for developers to increase revenues because Roblox pays them only 25% of every dollar spent on their games, assets, or items.

While this makes Apple’s 70%–85% payout rates seem generous, the reverse is true. Imagine a hypothetical involving $100 in Roblox iOS revenue. Based on fiscal 2021 performance, $30 goes to Apple off the top, $24 is consumed by Roblox’s core infrastructure and safety costs, and another $16 is taken up by overhead.

This leaves a total of $30 in pretax gross margin dollars for Roblox to reinvest in its platform. Reinvestment spans three categories: research and development (which makes the platform better for users and developers), user acquisition (which increases network effects, value for the individual player, and revenues for developers.

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