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The Voynich manuscript (pronounced: vojnics) is a book written in unknown punctuation, in an unknown language, the origin of which has not been deciphered to this day. It takes its name from its former owner, Wilfrid Michael Voynich, an American bookseller who joined in 1912.
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|Name of Book||Voynich Manuscript|
|PDF Size||55 MB|
|No of Pages||209|
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It was previously estimated that it may have been written between 1450 and 1520. According to a 2009 radiocarbon dating, it was written in the early 15th century, around 1420. It is currently housed in the Beinecke Library at Yale University. A reprint of the first facsimile (true to the original, unchanged) was published in 2005.
The work consists of 234 sheets 15 cm wide and 23 cm high velum sheets, of which forty-two sheets are missing according to page numbering. It is probable that as early as 1912, when he approached Voynich, it was not complete. Goose feathers were probably used to write the text and outline the figures.
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The drawings are colored with contemporary minerals and plants and are often roughened. Some believe that the images were included in the work after the text was written, while others believe that it was first, as in many places the text circulates or labels the images. Voynich Manuscript PDF Free Download Based on the drawings, this work may also seem to reflect the subjective connections of contemporary sciences and philosophies, or to perpetuate other peculiar unscientific theories.
During his documented history, it has been dealt with many times by amateur and professional coders, including the British and American Navies, but no one has been able to decipher it, even in part. All these failures have made the manuscript a famous mystery in historical cryptography, and at the same time supported the theory that the text is fraudulent and meaningless.
The illustrations in the manuscript provide little guidance for determining the exact content of the work, but they can be broken down into six separate chapters. Voynich Manuscript PDF Free Download Except for the last chapter, which contains only text, then ‘every page contains at least one figure, the style of which is very varied. The chapters with contemporary names:
The part dedicated to the herbarium with the image of a plant Herbarium: Each page contains one, sometimes two, plants, as well as a few paragraphs of text. It was made in the style typical of European herbariums of that era. Some figures are enlargements and more accurate illustrations of the illustrations in the pharmaceutical section.
Astronomy: The circular figures, some with figures of celestial bodies (suns, moons, and stars), suggest that its contents are related to astrology and astronomy. Voynich Manuscript PDF Free In turn, you will find the pages dealing with the 12 stars in a row (Pisces, Bull, a soldier with an archery like Sagittarius, etc.). Each symbol is framed by 30 female figures, most of whom are naked and all hold a labeled star.
The last two pages of the chapter, Aquarius and Capricorn (roughly January and February) are lost. Aries and Taurus are in four even figures with 15-15 stars. Some figures are on fold-out sheets. Biology: dense, continuous text interspersed with figures. The figures mostly depict naked female figures – some wearing crowns – bathing in tubs or pools, connected by an intricate network of pipes. The shape of some tubular networks clearly depicts human organs.
Cosmology: several circular figures of an unknown nature. There are also fold-out sides here, one of which is six-sided and contains some sort of map or figure: nine islands connected by roads, castles, and presumably a volcano. Voynich Manuscript PDF Free Pharmacy: labeled drawing of several separate plant parts (roots, leaves, etc.). Along the margins are drawings of objects resembling pharmaceutical containers. It also includes some text paragraphs.
Recipes: several short paragraphs marked with a floral or star-like symbol. The text was clearly written from left to right, with a rather fragmented right margin. The longer parts are grouped into paragraphs, sometimes marked with “dots” in the left margin. There is no clear punctuation.
The line drawing (speed, accuracy, skew) is fine, the author seems to have understood what he wrote; the manuscript does not give the impression that he had to deduce each character to his writer before putting it on paper. Voynich Manuscript PDF The text consists of more than 170,000 separate punctuation marks, usually separated by narrow spaces.
Most of them were written with one or two simple pen strokes. Although it is still a matter of debate which punctuation is different and which is not, almost an entire text can be written from an alphabet of 20 to 30 punctuation; the exception is a few dozen special characters that occur only once or twice. The wider gaps are approx.
The text is divided into 35,000 words of variable length. They seem to follow phonetic or spelling laws; for example, some characters must appear in every word (such as vowels in Hungarian), some characters never follow others, some may duplicate, others may not. Voynich Manuscript PDF Statistical analyzes revealed the structure of the text is similar to natural languages.
For example, word frequency follows Zipf’s law, and the entropy of words (about 10 bits / word) is similar to English or Latin texts. Some words appear only in some parts or on only a few pages, others can be found throughout the manuscript. Illustrations are labeled. In the section on herbs, the first word on each page occurs only on that page, so it’s probably the name of the plant.
On the other hand, the language of the Voynich manuscript is not at all similar to European languages in some respects. For example, it does not contain a word longer than ten letters, and it contains few single- or two-letter words. Voynich Manuscript PDF The occurrence of the letters within the words is also peculiar: some characters appear only at the beginning of the words, others only at the end, still others always only in the middle – this arrangement occurs in Arabic but is foreign to Roman, Greek or Cyrillic note that the Greek sigma has a different spelling when it is at the end of words, and the capital letters at the beginning of words can be very different from their lowercase form).
The text contains more repetitions than typical European languages; there are parts where the same common word occurs three times in a row. Even words that are different in just one letter are repeated with a remarkably high frequency. The manuscript contains only a few words written in Latin letters. The last page contains four lines written in rather distorted Latin letters, as well as two words in the text.
The letters evoke the 15th century European alphabets, but the words have nothing to do with any language. Voynich Manuscript PDF In addition, a series of “astronomical” figures include the names of the months (March to December) in Latin, pronounced in medieval French or one of the Iberian languages. We do not know whether these parts, written in Latin, belonged to the original text or were written later.