Click here to Download Why Nations Fail PDF Book by Daron Acemoglu and James A. Robinson English having PDF Size 10.9 MB and No of Pages 586.
Wahun sunacock quickly became aware of the colonists’ presence and viewed their intentions with great suspicion. He was in charge of what for North America was quite a large empire. But he had many enemies and lacked the overwhelming centralized political control of the Incas. Wahun sunacock decided to see what the intentions of the English were.
Why Nations Fail PDF Book by Daron Acemoglu and James A. Robinson
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|No of Pages||586|
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Initially sending messengers saying that he desired friendly relations with them. As the winter of 1607 closed in, the settlers in Jamestown began to run low on food, and the appointed leader of the colony’s ruling council, Edward Marie Wingeld, dithered indecisively. The situation was rescued by Captain John Smith.
Smith, whose writings provide one of our main sources of information about the early development of the colony, was a larger-than-life character. Born in England, in rural Lincolnshire, he disregarded his father’s desires for him to go into business and instead became a soldier of fortune.
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He rst fought with English armies in the Netherlands, after which he joined Austrian forces serving in Hungary ghting against the armies of the Ottoman Empire. Captured in Romania, he was sold as a slave and put to work as a eld hand. He managed one day to overcome his master and, stealing his clothes and his horse, escape back into Austrian territory.
Smith had got himself into trouble on the voyage to Virginia and was imprisoned on the Susan Constant for mutiny after defying the orders of Wingeld. When the ships reached the New World, the plan was to put him on trial. To the immense horror of Wingeld, Newport, and other elite colonists, however, when they opened their sealed orders.
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They discovered that the Virginia Company had nominated Smith to be a member of the ruling council that was to govern Jamestown. With Newport sailing back to England for supplies and more colonists, and Wingeld uncertain about what to do, it was Smith who saved the colony. He initiated a series of trading missions that secured vital food supplies.
On one of these he was captured by Opechancanough, one of Wahunsunacock’s younger brothers, and was brought before the king at Werowocomoco. He was the rst Englishman to meet Wahunsunacock, and it was at this initial meeting that according to some accounts Smith’s life was saved only at the intervention of Wahunsunacock’s young daughter Pocahontas.
Freed on January 2, 1608, Smith returned to Jamestown, which was still perilously low on food, until the timely return of Newport from England later on the same day. Although the ignorance hypothesis still rules supreme among most economists and in Western policymaking circles—which, almost to the exclusion of anything else, focus on how to engineer prosperity—it is just another hypothesis that doesn’t work. Why Nations Fail PDF Book
It explains neither the origins of prosperity around the world nor the lay of the land around us—for example, why some nations, such as Mexico and Peru, but not the United States or England, adopted institutions and policies that would impoverish the majority of their citizens, or why almost all sub-Saharan Africa and most of Central America are so much poorer than Western Europe or East Asia.
When nations break out of institutional patterns condemning them to poverty and manage to embark on a path to economic growth, this is not because their ignorant leaders suddenly have become better informed or less self-interested or because they’ve received advice from better economists.
China, for example, is one of the countries that made the switch from economic policies that caused poverty and the starvation of millions to those encouraging economic growth. But, as we will discuss in greater detail later, this did not happen because the Chinese Communist Party nally understood that the collective ownership of agricultural land and industry created terrible economic incentives. Why Nations Fail PDF Book
Instead, Deng Xiaoping and his allies, who were no less self-interested than their rivals but who had dierent interests and political objectives, defeated their powerful opponents in the Communist Party and masterminded a political revolution of sorts, radically changing the leadership and direction of the party.
Their economic reforms, which created market incentives in agriculture and then subsequently in industry, followed from this political revolution. It was politics that determined the switch from communism and toward market incentives in China, not better advice or a better understanding of how the economy worked.
WE WILL ARGUE that to understand world inequality we have to understand why some societies are organized in very inecient and socially undesirable ways. Nations sometimes do manage to adopt ecient institutions and achieve prosperity, but alas, these are the rare cases. Most economists and policymakers have focused on “getting it right.” Why Nations Fail PDF Book
While what is really needed is an explanation for why poor nations “get it wrong.” England was unique among nations when it made the breakthrough to sustained economic growth in the seventeenth century. Major economic changes were preceded by a political revolution that brought a distinct set of economic and political institutions, much more inclusive than those of any previous society.
These institutions would have profound implications not only for economic incentives and prosperity, but also for who would reap the benets of prosperity. They were based not on consensus but, rather, were the result of intense conict as dierent groups competed for power, contesting the authority of others and attempting to structure institutions in their own favor.
The culmination of the institutional struggles of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries were two landmark events: the English Civil War between 1642 and 1651, and particularly the Glorious Revolution of 1688. The Glorious Revolution limited the power of the king and the executive, and relocated to Parliament the power to determine economic institutions. Why Nations Fail PDF Book Download
At the same time, it opened up the political system to a broad cross section of society, who were able to exert considerable inuence over the way the state functioned. The Glorious Revolution was the foundation for creating a pluralistic society, and it built on and accelerated a process of political centralization.
It created the world’s rst set of inclusive political institutions. As a consequence, economic institutions also started becoming more inclusive. Neither slavery nor the severe economic restrictions of the feudal medieval period, such as serfdom, existed in England at the beginning of the seventeenth century. Nevertheless, there were many restrictions on economic activities people could engage in.
Both the domestic and international economy were choked by monopolies. The state engaged in arbitrary taxation and manipulated the legal system. Most land was caught in archaic forms of property rights that made it impossible to sell and risky to invest in. He was unique among powerful generals ghting in civil wars in not seeking the emperorship himself. Why Nations Fail PDF Book Download
Since the end of the second century, civil war had become a fact of life in the Roman Empire. Between the death of Marcus Aurelius in AD 180 until the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in AD 476, there was hardly a decade that did not see a civil war or a palace coup against an emperor. Few emperors died of natural causes or in battle.
Most were murdered by usurpers or their own troops. Aetius’s career illustrates the changes from Roman Republic and early Empire to the late Roman Empire. Not only did his involvement in incessant civil wars and his power in every aspect of the empire’s business contrast with the much more limited power of generals and senators during earlier periods.
But it also highlights how the fortunes of Romans changed radically in the intervening centuries in other ways. By the late Roman Empire, the so-called barbarians who were initially dominated and incorporated into Roman armies or used as slaves now dominated many parts of the empire. As a young man, Aetius had been held hostage by barbarians, rst by the Goths under Alaric and then by the Huns. Why Nations Fail PDF Book Download
Roman relations with these barbarians are indicative of how things had changed since the Republic. Alaric was both a ferocious enemy and an ally, so much so that in 405 he was appointed one of the senior-most generals of the Roman army. The arrangement was temporary, however. By 408, Alaric was ghting against the Romans, invading Italy and sacking Rome.
The Huns were also both powerful foes and frequent allies of the Romans. Though they, too, held Aetius hostage, they later fought alongside him in a civil war. But the Huns did not stay long on one side, and under Attila they fought a major battle against the Romans in 451, just across the Rhine. This time defending the Romans were the Goths, under Theodoric.
All of this did not stop Roman elites from trying to appease barbarian commanders, often not to protect Roman territories but to gain the upper hand in internal power struggles. For example, the Vandals, under their king, Geiseric, ravaged large parts of the Iberian Peninsula and then conquered the Roman bread baskets in North Africa from 429 onward. Why Nations Fail PDF Book Free
The Roman response to this was to oer Geiseric the emperor Valentinian III’s child daughter as a bride. Geiseric was at the time married to the daughter of one of the leaders of the Goths, but this does not seem to have stopped him. He annulled his marriage under the pretext that his wife was trying to murder him and sent her back to her family after mutilating her by cutting o both her ears and her nose.
Fortunately for the bride-tobe, because of her young age she was kept in Italy and never consummated her marriage to Geiseric. Later she would marry another powerful general, Petronius Maximus, the mastermind of the murder of Aetius by the emperor Valentinian III, who would himself shortly be murdered in a plot hatched by Maximus.
Maximus later declared himself emperor, but his reign would be very short, ended by his death during the major oensive by the Vandals under Geiseric against Italy, which saw Rome fall and savagely plundered. Opposition to innovation was manifested in two ways. First, Francis I was opposed to the development of industry. Why Nations Fail PDF Book Free
Industry led to factories, and factories would concentrate poor workers in cities, particularly in the capital city of Vienna. Those workers might then become supporters for opponents of absolutism. His policies were aimed at locking into place the traditional elites and the political and economic status quo. He wanted to keep society primarily agrarian.
The best way to do this, Francis believed, was to stop the factories being built in the rst place. This he did directly—for instance, in 1802, banning the creation of new factories in Vienna. Instead of encouraging the importation and adoption of new machinery, the basis of industrialization, he banned it until 1811.
Second, he opposed the construction of railways, one of the key new technologies that came with the Industrial Revolution. When a plan to build a northern railway was put before Francis I, he replied, “No, no, I will have nothing to do with it, lest the revolution might come into the country.” Why Nations Fail PDF Book Free
Since the government would not grant a concession to build a steam railway, the rst railway built in the empire had to use horsedrawn carriages. The line, which ran between the city of Linz, on the Danube, to the Bohemian city of Budweis, on the Moldau River, was built with gradients and corners, which meant that it was impossible subsequently to convert it to steam engines.
So it continued with horse power until the 1860s. The economic potential for railway development in the empire had been sensed early by the banker Salomon Rothschild, the representative in Vienna of the great banking family. Salomon’s brother Nathan, who was based in England, was very impressed by George Stephenson’s engine “The Rocket” and the potential for steam locomotion.
He contacted his brother to encourage him to look for opportunities to develop railways in Austria, since he believed that the family could make large prots by nancing railway development. Nathan agreed, but the scheme went nowhere because Emperor Francis again simply said no. Why Nations Fail PDF Book Free
The opposition to industry and steam railways stemmed from Francis’s concern about the creative destruction that accompanied the development of a modern economy. His main priorities were ensuring the stability of the extractive institutions over which he ruled and protecting the advantages of the traditional elites who supported him.
Not only was there little to gain from industrialization, which would undermine the feudal order by attracting labor from the countryside to the cities, but Francis also recognized the threat that major economic changes would pose to his political power. As a consequence, he blocked industry and economic progress, locking in economic backwardness, which manifested itself in many ways.
For instance, as late as 1883, when 90 percent of world iron output was produced using coal, more than half of the output in the Habsburg territories still used much less ecient charcoal. Similarly, right up to the First World War, when the empire collapsed, textile weaving was never fully mechanized but still undertaken by hand. Why Nations Fail PDF Book Free