Click here to Download The Tipping Point PDF Book by Malcolm Gladwell English having PDF Size 3.2 MB and No of Pages 287.
It made no sense to them that shoes that were so obviously out of fashion could make a comeback. “We were told that Isaac Mizrahi was wearing the shoes himself,” Lewis says. “I think it’s fair to say thai at the time we had no idea who Isaac Mizrahi was.” By the fall of 1995, things began to happen in a rush. first the designer John Bartlctt called.
The Tipping Point PDF Book by Malcolm Gladwell
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He wanted to use I lush Puppies in his spring collection. Then another Man hattan designer, Anna Sui, called, wanting shoes for her show as well. In Los Angeles, the designer Joel Fitzgerald put a twenty-five-foot inflatable basset hound — the symbol of the Hush Puppies brand — on the roof of his Hollywood store and gutted an adjoining art gallery to turn it into a Hush Puppies boutique.
While he was still painting and putting up shelves, the actor Pee-wee Herman walked in and asked for a couple of pairs. “It was total word of mouth,” Fitzgerald remembers. In 1995, the company sold 450,000 pairs of the classic Hush Puppies, and the next year it sold lour times that, and the year after that still more, until Hush Puppies were once again a staple of the wardrobe of the young American male.
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In 1996, Hush Puppies won the prize for best accessory at the Council of Fashion Designers awards dinner at Lincoln Center, and the president of the firm stood up On the stage with Calvin Klein and Donna Karan and accepted an award for an achievement that — as he would be the first to admit — his company had almost nothing to do with.
Hush Puppies had suddenly exploded, and it all started with a handful of kids in the East Village and Soho. How did that happen? The Tipping Point is the biography of an idea, and the idea is very simple. It is that the best way to understand the emergence of fashion trends, the ebb and How of crime waves, or, for that matter, the transformation ot unknown books into bestsellers, or the rise of teenage smoking.
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Or the phenomena of word of mouth, or any number of the other mysterious changes that mark everyday life is to think of them as epidemics. Ideas and products and messages and behaviors spread just like viruses do. The rise of Hush Puppies and the fall of New York’s crime rate are textbook examples of epidemics in action.
Although they may sound as if they don’t have very much in common, they share a basic, underlying pattern. First of all, they are clear examples of contagious behavior. No one took out an advertisement and told people that the traditional Hush Puppies were cool and they should start wear ing them.
Those kids simply wore the shoes when they went to clubs or cafes or walked the streets of downtown New York, and in so doing exposed other people to their fashion sense. They infected them with the Hush Puppies “virus.” The crime decline in New York surely happened the same way. It wasn’t that some huge percentage ol wouldbe murderers suddenly sat up in 1993 and decided not to commit any more crimes. The Tipping Point PDF Book
When we sav that a handful of East Village kids started the Hush Puppies epidemic, or that the scattering of the residents of a few housing projects was sufficient to start Baltimore’s syphilis epidemic, what we are really saying is that in a given process or system some people matter more than others. This is not, on the face of it, a particularly radical notion.
Economists often talk about the 80/20 Principle, which is the idea that in any situation roughly 80 percent of the “work” will be done by 20 percent of the participants. In most societies, 20 percent of criminals commit 80 percent of crimes. Twenty percent of motorists cause 80 percent of all accidents.
Twenty percent of beer drinkers drink 80 percent of all beer. When it comes to epidemics, though, this disproportionality becomes even more extreme: a tiny percentage of people do the majority of the work. Potterat, for example, once did an analysis of a gonorrhea epidemic in Colorado Springs, Colorado. The Tipping Point PDF Book
Looking at everyone who came to a public health clinic for treatment of the disease over the space of six months. He found that about half of all the cases came, essentially, from four neighborhoods representing about 6 percent of the geographic area of the city. Half of those in that 6 percent, in turn, were socializing in the same six bars.
Every time someone in Baltimore comes to a public clinic for treatment of syphilis or gonorrhea, John Zenilman plugs his or her address into his computer, so that the case shows up as a little black star on a map of the city. It’s rather like a medical version of the maps police departments put up on their walls, with pins marking where crimes have occurred.
On Zenilman’s map the neighborhoods of East and West Baltimore, on either side of the downtown core, tend to be thick with black stars. From those two spots, the cases radiate outward along the two central roadways that happen to cut through both neighborhoods. In the summer, when the incidence of sexually transmitted disease is highest. The Tipping Point PDF Book
The clusters of black stars on the roads leading out of East and West Baltimore become thick with cases. The disease is on the move. But in the winter months, the map changes. When the weather turns cold, and the people of East and West Baltimore are much more likely to stay at home, away from the bars and clubs and street corners where sexual transactions are made, the stars in each neighborhood fade away.
The seasonal effect on the number of cases is so strong that it is not hard to imagine that a long, hard winter in Baltimore could be enough to slow or lessen substantially — at least for the season — the growth of the syphilis epidemic. Epidemics, Zenilman’s map demonstrates, are strongly influenced by their situation — by the circumstances and conditions and particulars of the environments in which they operate.
It wasn’t that his connections hadn’t helped him. It was that he didn’t think of his people collection as a business strategy. He just thought of it as something he did. It was who he was. Horthow has an instinctive and natural gift for making social connections. He’s not aggressive about it. The Tipping Point PDF Book Download
He’s not one of those overly social, back-slapping types for whom the process of acquiring acquaintances is obvious and self-serving. He’s more an observer, with the dry, knowing manner of someone who likes to remain a little bit on the outside. He simply likes people, in a genuine and powerful way.
And he finds the patterns of acquaintanceship and interaction in which people arrange themselves to be endlessly fascinating. When I met with Horchow, he explained to me how he won the rights to revive the Gershwin musical Girl Crazy as Crazy for You. The full story took twenty minutes. This is just a portion.
If it seems at all calculating, it shouldn’t. Horchow told this story with a gentle, selfmocking air. He was, I think, deliberately playing up the idiosyncrasies of his personality. But as a portrait of how his mind works — and of what makes someone a Connector — I think it’s perfectly accurate: I have a friend named Mickey Shannon, who lives in New York. The Tipping Point PDF Book Download
He said, I know you love Gershwin. I have met George Gershwin’s old girlfriend. Her name is Emily Paley. She was also the sister of Ira Gershwin’s wife, Lenore. Then he stopped himself, as if he realized what he was saying, and burst out laughing. “Look, you can save a whole dollar! In a year’s time I could probably save enough for a whole bottle of wine.”
Alpert is almost pathologically helpful. He can’t help himself. “A Maven is someone who wants to solve other people’s problems, generally by solving his own,” Alpert said, which is true, although what I suspect is that the opposite is also true, that a Maven is someone who solves his own problems — his own emotional needs — by solving other people’s problems.
Something in Alpert was fulfilled in knowing that I would thereafter buy a television or a car or rent a hotel room in New York armed with the knowledge he had given me. “Mark Alpert is a wonderfully unselfish man,” Leigh MacAllister, a colleague of his at the University of Texas, told me. “I would say he saved me fifteen thousand dollars when I first came to Austin. The Tipping Point PDF Book Download
He helped me negotiate the purchase of a house, because he understands the real estate game. I needed to get a washer and dryer. He got me a deal. I needed to get a car. I wanted to get a Volvo because I wanted to be just like Mark. Then he showed me an on-line service that had the prices of Volvos all over the State of Texas and went with me to buy the car.
He helped me through the maze of all the retirement plans at the University of Texas. He simplified everything. He has everything processed. That’s Mark Alpert. That’s a Market Maven. God bless him. He’s what makes the American system great.” Here is another example of the subtleties of persuasion.
A large group of students were recruited for what they were told was a market research study by a company making high-tech headphones. They were each given a headset and told that the company wanted to test to sec how well they worked when the listener was in motion — dancing up and down, say, or moving his or her head. The Tipping Point PDF Book Download
All of the students listened to songs by Linda Ronstadt and the Eagles, and then heard a radio editorial arguing that tuition at their university should be raised from its present level of $587 to $750. A third were told that while they listened to the taped radio editorial they should nod their heads vigorously up and down.
The next third were told to shake their heads from side to side. The final third were the control group. They were told to keep their heads still. When they were finished, all the students were given a short questionnaire, asking them questions about the quality of the songs and the effect of the shaking.
Slipped in at the end was the question the experimenters really wanted an answer to: “What do vou feel would be an appropriate dollar amount for undergraduate tuition per year?” The answers to that question are just as difficult to believe as the answers to the newscasters poll. The students who kept their heads still were unmoved by the editorial. The Tipping Point PDF Book Free
The tuition amount that they guessed was appropriate was $582—or just about where tuition was already. We normally think of the expressions on our face as the reflection of an inner state. I feel happy, so I smile. I feel sad, so I frown. Emotion goes inside-out. Emotional contagion, though, suggests that the opposite is also true. If I can make you smile, I can make you happy.
If I can make you frown, I can make you sad. Emotion, in this sense, goes outside-in. If we think about emotion this way — as outside-in, not inside-out — it is possible to understand how some people can have an enormous amount of influence over others. Some of us, after all, are very good at expressing emotions and feelings, which means that we are far more emotionally contagious than the rest of us.
Psychologists call these people “senders.” Senders have special personalities. They are also physiologically different. Scientists who have studied faces, for example, report that there are huge differences among people in the location of facial muscles, in their form, and also — surprisingly — even in their prevalence. The Tipping Point PDF Book Free
“It is a situation not unlike in medicine,” says Cacioppo. “There are carriers, people who are very expressive, and there are people who are especially susceptible. It’s not that emotional contagion is a disease. But the mechanism is the same.” Howard Friedman, a psychologist at the University of California at Riverside.
Has developed what he calls the Affective Communication Test to measure this ability to send emotion, to be contagious. There was no ambiguity in his presentation. Everything was written on his face. I could not see my own face, of course, but my guess is that it was a close mirror of his. It is interesting, in this context, to think back on the experiment with the nodding and the headphones.
There was an example of someone persuaded from the outside-in, of an external gesture affecting an internal decision. Was I nodding when Tom Gau nodded? And shaking my head when Gau shook his head? Later, I called Gau up and asked him to take Howard Friedman’s charisma test. As we went through the list, question by question, he started chuckling. By question 11 —” I am terrible at pantomime, as in games like charades” — he was laughing out loud. “I’m great at that! The Tipping Point PDF Book Free