Outliers PDF Book by Malcolm Gladwell


Click here to Download Outliers PDF Book by Malcolm Gladwell Language English having PDF Size 3.8 MB and No of Pages 324.

Ther e is a story that is usually told about extremely successful people , a story that focuses on intelligence and ambition. In Outliers Malcolm Gladwell argues that the true story of success is very different, and that if we want to understand how some peopl e thrive, we should spend more time looking around them — at such things as their family, their birthplace, or even their birth date.

Outliers PDF Book by Malcolm Gladwell

Name of Book Outliers
PDF Size  3.8 MB
No of Pages 324
Language English
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About Book – Outliers PDF Book

The story of success is more complex — and a lot more interesting — than it initially appears. Outliers explains what the Beatles and Bill Gate s have in common , the extraordinary success of Asians at math, the hidden advantages of star athletes, why all top New York lawyers have the same résumé , and the reason you’ve never heard of the world’s smartest man — all in terms of generation.

Family, culture, and class. It matters what year you were born if you want to be a Silicon Valley billionaire, Gladwell argues, and it matters where you were born if you want to be a suc ­ cessful pilot. Th e lives of outliers — those peopl e whos e achievements fall outside normal experience — follow a peculiar and unexpected logic.

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And in making that logic plain Gladwell presents a fascinating and provocative blueprint for making the most of human potential. For centuries, the paesani of Roseto worked in the marble quarries in the surrounding hills, or cultivated the fields in the terraced valley below, walking four and five miles down the mountain in the morning and then making the long journey back up the hill at night. Life was hard.

The townsfolk were barely literate and desperately poor and without much hope for economic betterment until word reached Roseto at the end of the nineteenth century of the land of opportunity across the ocean. In January of 1882, a group of eleven Rosetans—ten men and one boy—set sail for New York.

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They spent their first night in America sleeping on the floor of a tavern on Mulberry Street, in Manhattan’s Little Italy. Then they ventured west, eventually finding jobs in a slate quarry ninety miles west of the city near the town of Bangor, Pennsylvania. The following year, fifteen Rose tans left Italy for America, and several members of that group ended up in Bangor as well, joining their compatriots in the slate quarry.

Those immigrants, in turn, sent word back to Roseto about the promise of the New World, and soon one group of Rosetans after another packed their bags and headed for Pennsylvania, until the initial stream of immigrants became a flood. In 1894 alone, some twelve hundred Rose tans applied for passports to America, leaving entire streets of their old village abandoned.

The Rosetans began buying land on a rocky hillside connected to Bangor by a steep, rutted wagon path. They built closely clustered two-story stone houses with slate roofs on narrow streets running up and down the hillside. They built a church and called it Our Lady of Mount Carmel and named the main street, on which it stood. Outliers PDF Book

One warm, spring day in May of 2007, t n e Medicine Hat Tigers and the Vancouver Giants met for the Memorial Cup hockey championships in Vancouver, British Columbia. The Tigers and the Giants were the two finest teams in the Canadian Hockey League, which in turn is the finest junior hockey league in the world.

These were the future stars of the sport—seventeen-, eighteen-, and nineteenyear-olds who had been skating and shooting pucks since they were barely more than toddlers. The game was broadcast on Canadian national television. Up and down the streets of downtown Vancouver, Memorial Cup banners hung from the lampposts.

The arena was packed. A long red carpet was rolled out on the ice, and the announcer introduced the game’s dignitaries. Recently, two economists — Kelly Bedard and Elizabeth Dhuey—looked at the relationship between scores on what is called the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study. Outliers PDF Book

Or TIMSS (math and science tests given every four years to children in many countries around the world), and month of birth. They found that among fourth graders, the oldest children scored somewhere between four and twelve percentile points better than the youngest children. That, as Dhuey explains, is a “huge effect.”

It means that if you take two intellectually equivalent fourth graders with birthdays at opposite ends of the cutoff date, the older student could score in the eightieth percentile, while the younger one could score in the sixty-eighth percentile. That’s the difference between qualifying for a gifted program and not. “It’s just like sports,” Dhuey said. “We do ability grouping early on in childhood.

We have advanced reading groups and advanced math groups. Dhuey and Bedard subsequently did the same analysis, only this time looking at college. What did they find? At four-year colleges in the United States—the highest stream of postsecondary education—students belonging to the relatively youngest group in their class are underrepresented by about 11.6 percent. Outliers PDF Book

That initial difference in maturity doesn’t go away with time. It persists. And for thousands of students, that initial disadvantage is the difference between going to college—and having a real shot at the middle class—and not. “The emerging picture from such studies is that ten thousand hours of practice is required to achieve the level of mastery associated with being a world-class expert—in anything.”

Writes the neurologist Daniel Levitin. “In study after study, of composers, basketball players, fiction writers, ice skaters, concert pianists, chess players, master criminals, and what have you, this number comes up again and again. Of course, this doesn’t address why some people get more out of their practice sessions than others do.

But no one has yet found a case in which true worldclass expertise was accomplished in less time. It seems that it takes the brain this long to assimilate all that it needs to know to achieve true mastery.” This is true even of people we think of as prodigies. Mozart, for example, famously started writing music at six. Outliers PDF Book

But, writes the psychologist Michael Howe in his book Genius Explained, by the standards of mature composers, Mozart’s early works are not outstanding. The earliest pieces were all probably written down by his father, and perhaps improved in the process. Many of Wolfgang’s childhood compositions, such as the first seven of his concertos for piano and orchestra.

Are largely arrangements of works by other composers. What’s going on here? The answer becomes obvious if you think about it. In the 1860s and 1870s, the American economy went through perhaps the greatest transformation in its history. This was when the railroads were being built and when Wall Street emerged. It was when industrial manufacturing started in earnest.

It was when all the rules by which the traditional economy had functioned were broken and remade. What this list says is that it really matters how old you were when that transformation happened. If you were born in the late 1840s you missed it. You were too young to take advantage of that moment. If you were born in the 1820s you were too old: your mind-set was shaped by the pre-Civil War paradigm. Outliers PDF Book Download

Now let’s do the same kind of analysis for people like Bill Joy and Bill Gates. If you talk to veterans of Silicon Valley, they’ll tell you that the most important date in the history of the personal computer revolution was January 1975. That was when the magazine Popular Electronics ran a cover story on an extraordinary machine called the Altair 8800.

The Altair cost $397. It was a do-it-yourself contraption that you could assemble at home. The headline on the story read: “PROJECT BREAKTHROUGH! World’s First Minicomputer Kit to Rival Commercial Models.” To the readers of Popular Electronics, in those days the bible of the fledgling software and computer world, that headline was a revelation.

“Once he got into the university environment, I thought he would prosper, I really did/’ his brother Mark says. “I thought he would somehow find a niche. It made absolutely no sense to me when he left that.” Without a degree, Langan floundered. He worked in construction. One frigid winter he worked on a clam boat on Long Island. Outliers PDF Book Download

He took factory jobs and minor civil service positions and eventually became a bouncer in a bar on Long Island, which was his principal occupation for much of his adult years. Through it all, he continued to read deeply in philosophy, mathematics, and physics as he worked on a sprawling treatise he calls the “CTMU”—the “Cognitive Theoretic Model of the Universe.”

But without academic credentials, he despairs of ever getting published in a scholarly journal. “I am a guy who has a year and a half of college,” he says, with a shrug. “And at some point this will come to the attention of the editor, as he is going to take the paper and send it off to the referees, and these referees are going to try and look me up, and they are not going to find me.

And they are going to say, This guy has a year and a half of college. How can he know what he’s talking about?” It is a heartbreaking story. At one point I asked Langan— hypothetically—whether he would take a job at Harvard University were it offered to him. “Well, that’s a difficult question,” he replied. “Obviously, as a full professor at Harvard I would count. Outliers PDF Book Download

My ideas would have weight and I could use my position, my affiliation at Harvard, to promote my ideas. Here he was, a man with an insatiable appetite for learning, forced for most of his adult life to live in intellectual isolation. “I even noticed that kind of intellectual energy in the year and a half I was in college,” he said, almost wistfully. “Ideas are in the air constantly.

It’s such a stimulating place to be. “On the other hand,” he went on, “Harvard is basically a glorified corporation, operating with a profit incentive. That’s what makes it tick. It has an endowment in the billions of dollars. The people running it are not necessarily searching for truth and knowledge.

They want to be big shots, and when you accept a paycheck from these people, it is going to come down to what you want to do and what you feel is right versus what the man says you can do to receive another paycheck. When you’re there, they got a thumb right on you. They are out to make sure you don’t step out of line.” Outliers PDF Book Free

“I don’t think there is anyone smarter than me out there,” he went on. “I have never met anybody like me or never seen even an indication that there is somebody who actually has better powers of comprehension. Never seen it and I don’t think I am going to. I could—my mind is open to the possibility. If anyone should challenge me—’Oh, I think that I am smarter than you are’ — I think I could have them.”

What he said sounded boastful, but it wasn’t really. It was the opposite—a touch defensive. He’d been working for decades now on a project of enormous sophistication—but almost none of what he had done had ever been published much less read by the physicists and philosophers and mathematicians who might be able to judge its value.

Here he was, a man with a one-in-a-million mind, and he had yet to have any impact on the world. He wasn’t holding forth at academic conferences. He wasn’t leading a graduate seminar at some prestigious university. He was living on a slightly tumbledown horse farm in northern Missouri, sitting on the back porch in jeans and a cutoff Tshirt. Outliers PDF Book Free

He knew how it looked: it was the great paradox of Chris Langan’s genius. “I have not pursued mainstream publishers as hard as I should have,” he conceded. “Going around, querying publishers, trying to find an agent. I haven’t done it, and I am not interested in doing it.” Joe Flom is the last living “named ” partner of the law firm Skadden, Arps, Slate, Meagher and Flom.

He has a corner office high atop the Condé Nast tower in Manhattan. He is short and slightly hunched. His head is large, framed by long prominent ears, and his narrow blue eyes are hidden by oversize aviator-style glasses. He is slender now, but during his heyday, Flom was extremely overweight. He waddles when he walks. He doodles when he thinks. He mumbles when he talks, and when he makes his way down the halls of Skadden, Arps, conversations drop to a hush.

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