Team of Teams PDF Book – New Rules of Engagement for a Complex World


Click here to Download Team of Teams PDF Book – New Rules of Engagement for a Complex World English having PDF Size 2.9 MB and No of Pages 361.

Whether in business or in war, the ability to react quickly and adapt is critical, and it’s becoming even more so as technology and disruptive forces increase the pace of change. That requires new ways to communicate and work together. In today’s world, creativity is a collaborative endeavor.

Team of Teams PDF Book – New Rules of Engagement for a Complex World

Name of Book Team of Teams
PDF Size 2.9 MB
No of Pages 361
Language  English
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About Book – Team of Teams PDF Book

Innovation is a team effort. This book draws timely lessons for any organization seeking to triumph in this new environment. Based on very real and vividly described situations that General McChrystal encountered as a commander in Iraq and Afghanistan, it describes how organizations need to reinvent themselves.

This involves breaking down silos, working across divisions, and mastering the flexible response that comes from true teamwork and collaboration. I have observed this phenomenon in my own study of innovation in the digital age. The greatest innovations have not come from a lone inventor or from solving problems in a top-down.

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Command-and-control style. Instead, the great successes—the creation of the computer, transistor, microchip, Internet—come from a “team of teams” working together in pursuit of a common goal. I once asked Steve Jobs, often mistakenly considered a lone visionary and authoritarian leader, which of his creations made him most proud.

I thought he might say the original Macintosh, or the iPhone. Instead he pointed out that these were all collaborative efforts. The creations he was most proud of, he said, were the teams he had produced, starting with the original Macintosh team working under a pirate flag in the early 1980s.

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And the remarkable team he had assembled by the time he stepped down from Apple in 2011. Today’s rapidly changing world, marked by increased speed and dense interdependencies, means that organizations everywhere are now facing dizzying challenges.

From global terrorism to health epidemics to supply chain disruption to game-changing technologies. These issues can be solved only by creating sustained organizational adaptability through the establishment of a team of teams. High-speed networks and digital communications mean that collaboration can—and must—happen in real time.

The distributed, decentralized, and weblike architecture of the Internet empowers each individual to be a collaborator. Likewise the necessity of real-time innovation and problem-solving requires integrative and transparent leadership that empowers individual team members. Team of Teams PDF Book

This new environment gave Al Qaeda a distinct advantage, allowing the networked organization to strike rapidly, reconfigure in real time, and integrate its globally dispersed actions. At first, this overwhelmed the Task Force led by General McChrystal, a traditional, secretive.

Siloed military hierarchy that was configured to solve the problems of an earlier era. The solution was, surprisingly, found in changing management structures. The U.S. military and its allies had to transform the way the special operations community operated, changing the way it waged the War on Terror.

The experience of General McChrystal and his colleagues, and their examination of the experiences of others, taught them that complexity at scale has rendered reductionist management ineffective for solving these issues in our networked world. Team of Teams PDF Book

Efficiency is necessary but no longer sufficient to be a successful organization. It worked in the twentieth century, but it is now quickly overwhelmed by the speed and exaggerated impact of small players, such as terrorists, start-ups, and viral trends.

Years later, in 2010, I took a teaching appointment at Yale University, where I had the opportunity to reflect on these experiences amid a community of wickedly intelligent people. One interaction proved particularly fascinating. Dr. Kristina Talbert-Slagle, a brilliant immunologist who studies AIDS, came to see me.

Curious about whether the similarities she saw between infections in the human body and insurgencies in a state correlated with my observations. They did; while neither HIV nor AIDS kills anyone outright, the human body is weakened to the point where it is fatally vulnerable to otherwise nonthreatening infections. Team of Teams PDF Book

The environmental factors that weaken the host indirectly strengthen and empower attackers. In 2004 I lacked this immunologist vocabulary, but I began to realize that an organization’s fitness—like that of an organism—cannot be assessed in a vacuum; it is a product of compatibility with the surrounding environment.

Understanding that environment would be the key to understanding why we were failing and AQI was winning. We may have had the best equipment and the best special operations units in the world, but we were not—as an organization—the best suited for that time and place.

AQI was successful because the environment allowed it to be. A big piece of this was the failure of the Iraqi state, but an even bigger piece was something that extended beyond national borders—something that was temporal, not geographic. A great deal has been written about how the world has become “flatter” and faster. Team of Teams PDF Book

People are more connected, more mobile, and move faster than ever before. By lowering what economists call the “barriers to entry”— prohibitive costs associated with entering a market—these changes have ushered in a universe of new possibilities for players operating outside the conventional systems.

Mark Zuckerberg, without family connections, starting capital. Traditionally, admirals fought naval battles by arranging their ships in a line parallel to those of the enemy. Both sides would fire volley after volley until one fleet, sufficiently weakened due to loss of life, ships, and ammunition, surrendered.

This arrangement maximized use of the cannon arrayed along the length of the warships. It also facilitated centralized control: admirals, positioned toward the middle of their line, could monitor the entire battle and issue orders with relative clarity by way of flag signaling. Team of Teams PDF Book Download

The face-off becomes a duel of puppet masters. Nelson, however, planned to approach from the side with two columns at a perpendicular angle and punch through the Franco-Spanish line, breaking it into three parts. He hoped to catch the fleet off guard, scatter both sides’ ships.

And create such chaos that the enemy’s commanders would be unable to issue coherent orders. Drawn on paper or moved as small models on a tabletop, Nelson’s daring move could be executed by even a dilettante. But the difference between the environment of a drawing-room tabletop and the tossing seas off.

The coast of Spain made managing the maneuver challenging. The 227- foot-long Victory was an enormous, heaving machine of wood, iron, canvas, and rope manned by 850 sailors scurrying constantly from the hold below the waterline to the yardarms on the three huge masts. Team of Teams PDF Book Download

The sailors used a twenty-six-mile maze of hemp-rope rigging to raise and adjust the 6,510 square yards of canvas that made up the thirty-seven sails needed to propel the ship. Managing the sails while loading, aiming, and firing massive guns in careful synchronicity with the ship’s roll required the careful orchestration of superbly drilled crews.

Micromanaging every sailor’s conduct across eight decks during routine sailing would have been difficult, and during battle impossible. It was no drawing-room exercise. Even getting into position for an attack would be risky. Ships’ cannons faced port and starboard and could not be turned to fire toward the bow or stern.

Nelson’s ships would be exposed to and defenseless against enemy fire during their approach. Once they pierced the line, however, they could fire, point-blank, through the row of French and Spanish ships, causing far more damage than in the conventional face-off. In the cabin of the Victory on September 29. Team of Teams PDF Book Download

Nelson described the plan to his captains and on October 9 followed up with a secret memo further describing how the fleet should separate into columns to attack the enemy. Maybe more important than laying out a specific strategy, Nelson took care to emphasize the role of the individual captains.

At the very core of his plan was what he later termed “the Nelson touch”: the idea that individual commanders should act on their own initiative once the mêlée had developed. To drop a six-hundred-strong battalion of the Eighty-second Airborne Division onto a pitch-dark landing zone requires intricate planning and coordination.

The men must first assemble on an airfield with twelve C-17 transport aircraft standing by (six for men, six for heavy equipment). The paratroopers, fresh from last-minute refresher training, don parachutes and, weighed down by their heavy equipment, file into the planes in careful sequence. Team of Teams PDF Book Download

Subordinate companies and platoons are “cross-loaded” through the aircraft so that when they reach the airspace above the start of the drop zone, they can jump in synchronized stages, hoping to land in the vicinity of their teammates and equipment. Paratroopers, bundles of ammunition.

And vehicles to be “heavy dropped” on pallets under huge parachutes are marked to allow for rapid recognition in the dark. To the soldiers, it is a familiar process. They spend thousands of hours in drills emphasizing precision and uniformity so that, in combat, they can gather themselves on the ground in the shortest possible time.

Beat off enemy attacks, and reach their objective. The pursuit of order is relentless. Nonetheless, time and again, paratroopers in combat find themselves scattered across the countryside, minus their vehicles and ammunition, and forced to self-organize into LGOPs (little groups of paratroopers) that accomplish the mission as best they can. Team of Teams PDF Book Download

Even when they land together, paratrooper battalions are still isolated inside enemy territory, without the luxury of immediate reinforcement, and limited more or less to what they can carry for supplies. To stand any chance of succeeding, they must learn to get the most out of the little that they have; they must be ruthlessly efficient.

A Combat parachuting offers a microcosm of the paradox inherent in military operations. The pursuit of predictability—carefully delineated instructions, easily replicable procedures, fastidious standardization, and a tireless focus on efficiency—is foundational to the military’s struggle against the chaos always threatening to engulf combat operations.

Historically, this quest for order has produced impressive results. However, we were learning in 2004 that efficiency was no longer enough. A look into the origins of this doctrine reveals why it was effective at confronting the threats of the 1900s, but has proved increasingly inadequate at battling the networked mayhem of the twenty-first century. Team of Teams PDF Book Free

Taylor’s efforts dovetailed nicely with contemporary scientific thought, heavily influenced by the elegant simplicity of earlier thinkers such as Newton and “the French Newton,” Pierre-Simon Laplace. Science at the time was dominated by the notion of determinism—the idea that any initial conditions has only one.

Inevitable outcome: a ball thrown at a certain speed will have a predictable trajectory, as will a planet in orbit. Throughout the nineteenth century, phenomena that had once been written off as the work of God fell under human mastery. The vision was of a “clockwork universe” in which all laws were coherent and all causes and effects predictable.

If you knew the rules and the inputs, you could foresee and sometimes manipulate the outputs. The challenge was taking the clockwork apart to see how it all fit together. Taylor created a clockwork factory, systematically eliminating variation, studying all labor until he understood it inside and out. Team of Teams PDF Book Free

Honing it to peak efficiency, and ensuring that those precise procedures were followed at scale. Because he could study and predict, he could control. He dubbed his doctrine “scientific management.” Taylor’s statement is offensive and inaccurate, but he was right in pointing out that many people do things in inefficient ways.

And that small inefficiencies multiplied at industrial scale reduce productivity. The world had become vastly more complicated since the time of apprenticeships and small, family-run enterprises. The level of complication had passed a threshold whereby localized improvisation and intuition could not support the magnitude of industrial endeavors.

The scope and intricacy of production processes had expanded to the point that they required planners and coordinators to ensure that all the pieces came together efficiently and effectively. The rise of managers as the thinkers who would devise such blueprints—and the reduction of workers. Team of Teams PDF Book Free

To instruments of implementation —seemed to follow as a natural consequence. Taylor’s star has dimmed. His treatment of workers has been widely decried, as has his conception of individuals as mechanistic entities to be manipulated. In the 1960s, MIT professor Douglas McGregor’s “Theory X” and “Theory Y” of human resource management.

Offered a famous critique of Taylorist principles: in McGregor’s view, Taylor’s approach (X) saw humans as fundamentally lazy and in need of financial incentives and close monitoring in order to do work, while McGregor’s own Theory Y understood people as capable of self-motivation and self-control.

And argued that managers would achieve better results by treating their employees with respect. Nevertheless, Taylor’s foundational belief—the notion that an effective enterprise is created by commitment to efficiency, and that the role of the manager is to break things apart and plan “the one best way”—remains relatively unchallenged. Team of Teams PDF Book Free

The question of the treatment of labor is an argument over the appropriate means to that agreed-upon end. We might recoil today at the brutal consequences of mechanized warfare and the dehumanizing connotations of the assembly line, but the principles that undergird these systems remain firmly embedded in the way.

Organizations of all types approach management and leadership. We still search faithfully for the one best way to do things; we still think of organizational leaders as planners, synchronizers, and coordinators—chess-player strategists responsible for overseeing interlocking troop movements, marketing initiatives, or global supply chains.

The structures of our organizations reflect this ideal. Whether imbued with a “lazy worker” Theory X or a “motivated worker” Theory Y disposition, the “org charts” of most multiperson endeavors look pretty similar: a combination of specialized vertical columns (departments or divisions) and horizontal tiers that denote levels of authority. Team of Teams PDF Book Free

With the most powerful literally on top—the only tier that can access all columns. At the top, we envision the strategic decision making. At the bottom, we imagine action by those taking direction. The efficiency, strength, and logic that we are inclined to see in such a chart is a natural extension of the separation of planning from execution.

From our conception of leadership to the form of our organizations, reductionism laid the foundation of contemporary management.